In Maine, the statutes under 32 M.R.S. § 3263 to 32 M.R.S. § 3300 deal with the regulations of physicians. Unless licensed by the board, an individual may not practice medicine or surgery or a branch of medicine or surgery or claim to be legally licensed to practice medicine or surgery or a branch of medicine or surgery within the State by diagnosing, relieving in any degree or curing, or professing or attempting to diagnose, relieve or cure a human disease, ailment, defect or complaint, whether physical or mental, or of physical and mental origin, by attendance or by advice, or by prescribing or furnishing a drug, medicine, appliance, manipulation, method or a therapeutic agent whatsoever or in any other manner unless otherwise provided by statutes of this State.
Pursuant to the statutes, whoever, not being duly licensed by the board, practices medicine or surgery or a branch of medicine or surgery, or purports to practice medicine or surgery or a branch of medicine or surgery in a way cited in this section, or who uses the title “Doctor” or the letters “Dr.” or the letters “M.D.” in connection with that individual’s name, contrary to this section, commits a Class E crime. The prefixing of the title “Doctor” or the letters “Dr.” or the appending of the letters “M.D.” by an individual to that individual’s name or the use of the title of doctor or physician in any way by an individual not licensed as described is prima facie evidence that that individual is purporting to practice medicine or surgery contrary to this section, except that nothing contained in this section prevents an individual who has received the doctor’s degree from a reputable college or university, other than the degree of “Doctor of Medicine” from prefixing the letters “Dr.” to that individual’s name, if that individual is not engaged, and does not engage, in the practice of medicine or surgery or the treatment of a disease or human ailment. Nothing in this chapter may be construed as to affect or prevent the practice of the religious tenets of a church in the ministration to the sick or suffering by mental or spiritual means. All fees set in this chapter are nonrefundable application fees or administrative processing fees payable to the board at the time of application or at the time board action is requested. Unless otherwise specified, the board shall set the fees[i].
All applicants for licensure as a physician or surgeon in the State must satisfy the following requirements, except where otherwise specified by this chapter. Each applicant must:
- Graduate from a medical school designated as accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education;
- Graduate from an unaccredited medical school, be evaluated by the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates and receive a permanent certificate from the Educational Commission for Foreign Graduates; or
- Graduate from an unaccredited medical school and achieve a passing score on the Visa Qualifying Examination or another comprehensive examination determined by the board to be substantially equivalent to the Visa Qualifying Examination.
Each applicant who has graduated from an accredited medical school on or after January 1, 1970 but before July 1, 2004 must have satisfactorily completed at least 24 months in a graduate educational program accredited by the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education, the Canadian Medical Association or the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. Notwithstanding other requirements of postgraduate training, an applicant is eligible for licensure when the candidate has satisfactorily graduated from a combined postgraduate training program in which each of the contributing programs is accredited by the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education and the applicant is eligible for accreditation by the American Board of Medical Specialties in both specialties. Each applicant who has graduated from an accredited medical school prior to January 1, 1970 must have satisfactorily completed at least 12 months in a graduate educational program accredited by the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education, the Canadian Medical Association or the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. Each applicant who has graduated from an accredited medical school on or after July 1, 2004 or an unaccredited medical school must have satisfactorily completed at least 36 months in a graduate educational program accredited by the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education, the Canadian Medical Association, the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada or the Royal Colleges of England, Ireland or Scotland. An applicant who has completed 24 months of postgraduate training and has received an unrestricted endorsement from the director of an accredited graduate education program in the State is considered to have satisfied the postgraduate training requirements of this subsection if the applicant continues in that program and completes 36 months of postgraduate training. Notwithstanding this subsection, an applicant who is board certified by the American Board of Medical Specialties is deemed to meet the postgraduate training requirements of this subsection.
Each applicant must achieve a passing score on each component of the uniform examination of the Federation of State Medical Boards or other examinations designated by the board as the qualifying examination or examinations for licensure. Each applicant must additionally achieve a passing score on a State of Maine examination administered by the board. Each applicant shall pay a fee up to $ 600 plus the cost of the qualifying examination or examinations. An applicant may not be licensed unless the board finds that the applicant is qualified and no cause exists, as set forth in section 3282-A, that may be considered grounds for disciplinary action against a licensed physician or surgeon. The board may waive the requirements of subsection 2 for a physician who does not meet the postgraduate training requirements but who meets the requirements of this subsection. To be considered for a waiver under this subsection, the physician must:
1) Be a graduate of a foreign medical school, not including a medical school in Canada or Great Britain;
2) Be licensed in another state; and
3) Have at least 3 years of clinical experience in the area of expertise.
If the physician meets the requirements of paragraph A, the board shall use the following qualifications of the physician to determine whether to grant a waiver:
1) Completion of a 3-year clinical fellowship in the United States in the area of expertise. The burden of proof as to the quality and content of the fellowship is placed on the applicant;
2) Appointment to a clinical academic position at a licensed medical school in the United States;
3) Publication in peer-reviewed clinical medical journals recognized by the board;
4) The number of years in clinical practice; and
5) Other criteria demonstrating expertise, such as awards or other recognition.
The costs associated with the board’s determination of licensing eligibility in regard to paragraph B must be paid by the applicant upon completion of the determination under paragraph A. The application cost must reflect and not exceed the actual cost of the final determination. The board may issue a license limited to the practice of administrative medicine as defined by routine technical rule of the board adopted pursuant to Title 5, chapter 375, subchapter 2-A[ii].
Pursuant to 32 M.R.S. § 3274, each physician licensed under this chapter is entitled to receive a license under the seal of the board and signed by the chair and the secretary, which must be publicly displayed at the individual’s principal place of practice, as long as this individual continues the practice of medicine. The holder of a license or temporary license who notifies the board in writing of the withdrawal of the holder’s license is not required to pay licensure fees or penalties beyond those due at the time of the holder’s withdrawal, but after a holder gives this notice, the holder’s license to practice is not valid until reinstated by the board. An applicant for reinstatement is entitled to be reinstated upon paying a reinstatement fee of $ 50 and satisfying the board that the applicant has paid all fees and penalties due at the time of the applicant’s withdrawal, and no cause exists for revoking or suspending the applicant’s license, and the applicant has applied within 5 years after the applicant’s withdrawal, and was in active practice outside this State within one year prior to the filing of application for reinstatement[iii].
The board shall investigate a complaint, on its own motion or upon receipt of a written complaint filed with the board, regarding noncompliance with or violation of this chapter or any rules adopted by the board. The board shall notify the licensee of the content of a complaint filed against the licensee as soon as possible, but not later than 60 days after receipt of this information. The licensee shall respond within 30 days. The board shall share the licensee’s response with the complainant, unless the board determines that it would be detrimental to the health of the complainant to obtain the response. If the licensee’s response to the complaint satisfies the board that the complaint does not merit further investigation or action, the matter may be dismissed, with notice of the dismissal to the complainant, if any.
Furthermore, if, in the opinion of the board, the factual basis of the complaint is or may be true and the complaint is of sufficient gravity to warrant further action, the board or a subcommittee of the board may request and conduct an informal conference with the licensee. The board shall provide the licensee with adequate notice of the conference and the issues to be discussed. The complainant may attend and may be accompanied by up to 2 individuals, including legal counsel. The conference must be conducted in executive session of the board or a subcommittee of the board, pursuant to Title 1, section 405, unless otherwise requested by the licensee. Before the board decides what action to take at the conference or as a result of the conference, the board or a subcommittee of the board shall give the complainant a reasonable opportunity to speak. Statements made at the conference may not be introduced at a subsequent formal hearing unless all parties consent. The complainant, the licensee or either of their representatives shall maintain the confidentiality of the conference.
When a complaint has been filed against a licensee and the licensee moves or has moved to another state, the board may report to the appropriate licensing board in that state the complaint that has been filed, other complaints in the physician’s record on which action was taken and disciplinary actions of the board with respect to that physician. When an individual applies for a license under this chapter, the board may investigate the professional record of that individual, including professional records that the individual may have as a licensee in other states. The board may deny a license or authorize a restricted license based on the record of the applicant in other states.
The statutes further provide that if the board finds that the factual basis of the complaint is true and is of sufficient gravity to warrant further action, it may take any of the following actions it determines appropriate.
A. With the consent of the licensee, the board may enter into a consent agreement that fixes the period and terms of probation best adapted to protect the public health and safety and rehabilitate or educate the licensee. A consent agreement may be used to terminate a complaint investigation, if entered into by the board, the licensee and the Attorney General’s office.
B. In consideration for acceptance of a voluntary surrender of the license, the board may negotiate stipulations, including terms and conditions for reinstatement, that ensure protection of the public health and safety and serve to rehabilitate or educate the licensee. These stipulations may be set forth only in a consent agreement signed by the board, the licensee and the Attorney General’s office.
C. If the board concludes that modification or nonrenewal of the license is in order, the board shall hold an adjudicatory hearing in accordance with Title 5, chapter 375, subchapter 4.
D. If the board concludes that suspension or revocation of the license is in order, the board shall file a complaint in the District Court in accordance with Title 4, chapter 5. The board shall require a licensee to notify all patients of the licensee of a probation or stipulation under which the licensee is practicing as a result of board disciplinary action. This requirement does not apply to a physician participating in an alcohol or drug treatment program pursuant to Title 24, section 2505, a physician who retires following charges made or complaints investigated by the board or a physician under the care of a professional and whose medical practices and services are not reduced, restricted or prohibited by the disciplinary action.
Moreover, the board may suspend or revoke a license pursuant to Title 5, section 10004. The following are grounds for an action to refuse to issue, modify, restrict, suspend, revoke or refuse to renew the license of an individual licensed under this chapter:
A. The practice of fraud or deceit in obtaining a license under this chapter or in connection with service rendered within the scope of the license issued;
B. Habitual substance abuse that has resulted or is foreseeably likely to result in the licensee performing services in a manner that endangers the health or safety of patients;
C. A professional diagnosis of a mental or physical condition that has resulted or may result in the licensee performing services in a manner that endangers the health or safety of patients;
D. Aiding or abetting the practice of medicine by an individual who is not licensed under this chapter and who claims to be legally licensed;
E. Incompetence in the practice for which the licensee is licensed. A licensee is considered incompetent in the practice if the licensee has:
1) Engaged in conduct that evidences a lack of ability or fitness to discharge the duty owed by the licensee to a client or patient or the general public; or
2) Engaged in conduct that evidences a lack of knowledge or inability to apply principles or skills to carry out the practice for which the licensee is licensed;
F. Unprofessional conduct. A licensee is considered to have engaged in unprofessional conduct if the licensee violates a standard of professional behavior, including engaging in disruptive behavior, that has been established in the practice for which the licensee is licensed.
G. Subject to the limitations of Title 5, chapter 341, conviction of a crime that involves dishonesty or false statement or relates directly to the practice for which the licensee is licensed, or conviction of a crime for which incarceration for one year or more may be imposed;
H. A violation of this chapter or a rule adopted by the board;
I. Engaging in false, misleading or deceptive advertising;
J. Prescribing narcotic or hypnotic or other drugs listed as controlled substances by the Drug Enforcement Administration for other than accepted therapeutic purposes;
K. Failure to report to the secretary of the board a physician licensed under this chapter for addiction to alcohol or drugs or for mental illness in accordance with Title 24, section 2505, except when the impaired physician is or has been a patient of the licensee;
L. Failure to comply with the requirements of Title 24, section 2905-A; or
M. Revocation, suspension or restriction of a license to practice medicine or other disciplinary action; denial of an application for a license; or surrender of a license to practice medicine following the institution of disciplinary action by another state or a territory of the United States or a foreign country if the conduct resulting in the disciplinary or other action involving the license would, if committed in this State, constitute grounds for discipline under the laws or rules of this State[iv].
[i] 32 M.R.S. § 3270.
[ii] 32 M.R.S. § 3271.
[iii] 32 M.R.S. § 3281.
[iv] 32 M.R.S. § 3282-A.